1914 – American nurse Margaret Sanger invents the term “birth control”.12
1942 – Planned Parenthood Federation of America is established to unite the efforts of eugenicists, population controllers and birth controllers.15
1939-1948 – Increase in individual efforts in the Philippines by Presbyterian, Congregational, and other Protestant ministers to spread information about birth control.16
1948 – Planned Parenthood awards a grant to Gregory Pincus, a research biologist, to conduct tests and develop the a birth control pill.17
1952 – Population Council is founded by John D. Rockefeller III. This would be the nexus of the entire population control movement, going on to coordinate the work of the United Nations, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, founded just three weeks later, as well as major pharmaceutical firms. IPPF’s first director Blacker said of their goal, “You seek to fulfill the aims of eugenics without disclosing what you are really aiming at and without mentioning the word.” With the approval of India’s PM, India’s people became some of the very first subjects of experimentation in the quest to find a cheap contraceptive “to be used in poverty stricken slums, jungles and among the most ignorant people.” Just a few years later, Sanger would go back to the US and promote the sterilization of what she deemed “dysgenic” portions of the population.18
1953 – Feminist Katherine McCormick agrees to fund development and testing of the birth control pill. Experimental biologist Gregory Pincus and gynecologist John Rock work together to develop a hormonal oral contraceptive.19
1957 The Philippine’s National Council of Churches establishes the Family Relations Center, a counseling clinic. The Children’s Medical Center Foundation is established. One of its semi-autonomous units is the Institute of Maternal and Child Health, which is responsible for extending services to rural areas.20
1959 – Swedish researcher Bent Boving, at a Planned Parenthood-Population Council symposium notes that: “Whether eventual control of implantation can be reserved the social advantage of being considered to prevent conception rather than to destroy an established pregnancy could depend upon something so simple as a prudent habit of speech.”21
1960 – The US FDA approves the sale of oral pills for contraception.22
1964 – The University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) is formally established as a unit of the University of the Philippines, with an initial grant from the Ford Foundation. Its goal is to undertake population studies and train graduates in demography.23
1965 – American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) adopts Boving’s definition that “conception is the implantation of a fertilized ovum” even though the zygote at implantation is already a blastocyst (five-day old embryo).24 The Family Relations Center is reorganized into the Planned Parenthood Movement in the Philippines. The Family Planning Association of the Philippines is established to provide education, information and clinic services. The University of the Philippines Population Institute organizes the first Conference in Population with support from the Population Council.25 US President Lyndon Johnson declares in a speech that every five dollars spent on population control was worth more than a hundred dollars invested in economic growth.26 American funding for family planning programs both in the US and abroad begins to soar.27
1966 – Lyndon Johnson receives Planned Parenthood’s highest award (the Margaret Sanger award) for his policies pushing family planning on foreign countries.28
1967 – President Ferdinand Marcos adds his signature to a Declaration on Population made the previous year by representatives of 12 countries.29 The declaration stresses that the “population problem” must be recognized as the principal element in long-term economic development.30 The Institute of Maternal and Child Health sets up the National Training Center for Maternal Health Service in accordance with an agreement between the National Economic Council, the Institute for Maternal and Chld Health, and the US Agency for International Development.31
12 Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: from Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Print.
13 Sanger, Margaret, Esther Katz, Cathy Moran. Hajo, and Peter Engelman. The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
14 Franks, Angela. Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy: the Control of Female Fertility. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005. Print.
15 Adler 150.
16 Robinson 278.
17 Sexual & Reproductive Health – Sex Education – Planned Parenthood. Web. 13 May 2011. <http://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/who-we-are/history-and-successes.htm>.
18 Connelly 163.
19 Dhont, Marc. “History of Oral Contraception.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 15.S2 (2010): S12-18. Print.
20 Robinson 278.
21 “Birth Control Pills: Contraceptive or Abortifacient? | ALL.org.” American Life League: The Nation’s Largest Grassroots Catholic Pro-Life Organization . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2011. <http://www.all.org/article/index/id/MjUwMA>.
22 Adler 155.
23 Robinson 279.
24 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Terminology Bulletin. Terms Used in Reference to the Fetus. No. 1. Philadelphia: Davis, September, 1965.
25 Robinson 279.
28 Califano, Joseph A. Inside: a Public and Private Life. New York: PublicAffairs, 2004. 173. Print.
29 “Philippines Population Control and Management Policies.” Protection of Conscience Project. Web. 28 May 2011. <http://www.consciencelaws.org/issues-legal/legal055a.html>.
31 Robinson 279.